THE CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ALBANIA AND IMPLEMENTATION OF WASTE INCINERATION
- 1. Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania
Abstract: Despite years of efforts to improve the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Albania, this activity again poses a challenge for the country. The predominant method of waste disposal is landfilling, while in 2017 the construction of the first incinerator of MSW with energy recovery in Elbasan was completed and now is in operation. Incineration of MSW is a well-known method for waste disposal, but in Albania it is being applied in recent years. Currently, two other incinerators are under construction: in Tirana (the capital of Albania) and in Fier. Such a large number of incinerators and consequently small capacity, is associated with higher disposal costs per ton, and higher levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), without exploiting and benefiting the economies of scale. LCOE for an incinerator with power of 10 MWe, resulted 0.1013 USD / kWh and for another one with power of 10 MWe, it resulted 0.0523 USD/kWh. In this paper I will address a general view of the current state of MSW management, the legal framework for this sector, objectives set for the period 2020 - 2035 and the estimation of LCOE for two incineration plants.