HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT: CASE STUDY OF NORTH MACEDONIA
- 1. University American College, Skopje, North Macedonia
- 2. Environmental Engineering Department, Engineering and Natural Science Faculty, Konya Technical University, Konya, Turkey
- 3. Expert in Ecology, Plainfield, Illinois, USA; Consultant Scientific Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center (ESSIC), University of Maryland College Park, USA; Chief Editor of IJEES journal
Abstract: Hazardous waste is the most complex type of waste and in the same time its management is very difficult and complicate. This waste produces a great risk to the environment and human health. It may be in different physical states, such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. Considering a very large types and sources of hazardous waste its management is very complex and needs different measures and activities during all life cycles, from its origin to final recovery or disposal. There are very different types of hazardous waste such as: electrical and electronic, battery, chemical, medical, radioactive etc. The biggest portion of this waste is generated by different industrial process, but also from other business, public and health services, households, transport, education and science, and many other sources. Hazardous waste management has to be based on the principles of precautionary, prevention, high quality, sustainability, polluter has to pay, recycling and recovery and high level of environmental protection. But a key point for environmentally friendly hazardous waste management is its minimization. North Macedonia as a country which has just start negotiation with the European Union for becoming a full member state, it is just on beginning of the establishment efficient and effective hazardous waste management. On this way it faces with a number of difficulties. There are significant progress in the sectors of electrical and electronical waste and waste from batteries where there are transposed a part of EU regulation and it is establish collective operators schemes, but in other sectors such as chemical, radioactive and medical waste, additional measures and activities has to be done in the near future. Additional problems arising from such as named historical “hot spots” from the industry and especially mining sector. Improving hazardous waste management in the country needs significant financial funds. Also it has to be considered that small countries such N. Macedonia is not able to establish completely autonomy treatment of hazardous waste. It has to be done on a wider base with cooperation with international community. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the conditions with hazardous waste management in N. Macedonia and to give some proposals.