THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
- 1. Aleksander Moisiu University, Business Faculty, Department of Economics, Durrës, Albania
- 2. Necmettin Erbakan University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Environmental Engineering, Konya, Turkey
- 3. Aleksander Moisiu University, Department of Economics, Durrës, Albania
- 4. Aleksander Moisiu University, Department of Marketing, Msc. Student, Durrës, Albania
Abstract: This paper examines the link between health, environment, and economic development, focusing on Albania. Health and development are irrevocably interrelated. Life expectancy and also child mortality are considered key development indicators. Air pollution leads to premature death from heart disease, stroke, and cancer, as well as acute lower respiratory infections. It caused an estimated 7 million deaths globally in 2016, according to the World Health Organization. Most recorded air pollution linked deaths occur in developing countries, where laws are weak or not applied, vehicle emission standards are less stringent and coal power stations more prevalent. In Albania, the situation of air quality is one of the major issues that disturb local and national authorities for the impact on the health of the population, agriculture, and the environment in general. The transport is the main source of urban air pollution. The number of vehicles continues to grow from year to year, and their average age is 20 years, from 10.2 years in the European Union. Moreover, we can say that Albania has become “Europe's rubbish bin” because new cars make up only 4% of the total number of cars and the difference, 96%, are used one, which, although developed the business of used cars, the pollution they cause is deadly. Clean air is a human right and a necessary pre-condition for addressing climate change as well as achieving many Sustainable Development Goals. Air pollution does not only damage human health, but it also hampers the economy in many ways. In Albania, it is noticed that the budget that municipalities allocate to services directly related to the environment (including the protection of air, soil, and water quality from pollution) is very low. The maximum value distributed in the total budget for these services is evidenced by 0.7% in 2016, and 2.9% in 2017. We use macroeconomic data to give answers to the basic hypothesis of the paper that environment situation is closely linked with the health and economic development of a country.