ESTIMATION OF MANCOZEB-BASED FUNGICIDES AS POTENTIAL POLLUTANTS BY INDUCEMENT OF PHYTO- AND GENOTOXICITY ON ALLIUM CEPA L. ALBANIAN ECOTYPE DRISHTI
- 1. University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Biology and Chemistry, Shkoder, Albania
- 2. University “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Biology and Chemistry, Shkoder, Albania
Abstract: Pesticide pollution issues are increasingly occurring all over the world. In order to estimate the potential polluting effects of some mancozeb-based fungicides the present study investigated their phytotoxicity and genotoxicity on seeds and root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. Albanian ecotype Drishti. Seed germination capacity, root length, evaluation of EC50-s, mitotic index, frequencies of micronuclei, chromosomal aberrations and types were applied as toxicity indicator parameters after the treatment under three time exposure periods (24, 36 and 48 hours) of biological materials with four concentrations (0.04-0.16%) of AGRIA-MANCOZEB 80 WP, MANFIL 75 WG and DITHANE M-45 blue 72 WP. The result revealed limitation in seed germination and significant root growth restriction mainly after 36- and 48 hours exposure of Manfil and AGRIA-MANCOZEB, having even EC50 values included into field applications. Obvious reduction of meristematic activity and increased chromosomal abnormalities and micronuclei incidence were recorded particularly at the highest concentrations of fungicide samples after 48 h exposure. The current data distinctly emphasized the phyto- and genotoxic effects on a non-target crop and assay as onion of all investigated mancozeb-based fungicides, broadly used in Albanian agriculture during the last decade, demonstrating their potential pollution impact on environment and human population health. Our findings should serve as a prominent alert for the prospective risk situation caused from indiscriminate use of fungicides, their active ingredient purity and toxic consequences on food chain organisms.