Author(s): Emma Gurashi Nikolaoy1
  • 1. Lab.Path-Anat.Mol-Biol Med School of Athens Greece.

Abstract: There is no disputing the fact on the Historic of the Immunology originated from the study of Immunity. The study of Immunity itself had little scientific basis until the investigations of Louis Pasteur in the second half of the 19th century. It was at approximately this time that techniques were being developed to recognize, cultivate, and attenuate the microbes that caused certain infectious diseases. Pasteur genius allowed him to capitalize on these developments. To add to them his own knowledge from his background in chemistry and biology, and to emerge as the father of Immunology. The groundwork of immunology as a science probably originated in ancient China, where the inhalation of dried smallpox crust was practiced as a prevention of this disease. Presumably the viral agent of this disfiguring and lethal disease lost some of its infectivity in drying, so that is was a mixture of inactivated and active viral particles that was actual inhaled. In Turkey a different form of variolation (smallpox was then known as variola) was Observed by Lady Montagu, wife of the British Ambassador. There pustular material was taken from the lesions of a person with a mild case of smallpox and transferred by a common needle into a vein or tissue of the person desiring the Immunization. Hopefully a mild form of smallpox would be developed and apparently did enough regularity for Lady Montagu to have her own children vaccinated in this manner. In 1718 she introduces this procedure in England, and she is credited with introducing the Method to the Western World. Obviously, these earlier methods of Immunization had inescapable risk there was no assurance that variolation would result in only a mild case of smallpox and there also a possibility of transferring Syphilis, Leprosy, Hepatitis or most any other diseases of the donor. Jenner system of a smallpox vaccination, advanced by him in the 1789 as a result of his study of Cowpox and smallpox in English milkmaids avoided this problem and began to place immunity on a firm scientific footing.